Hypertension "is a disorder in which the blood vessels have persistently high tension, which can harm them, "as indicated by the World Health Organization (WHO). During pregnancy, some women can develop it and its control is essential to prevent the baby's life from being in danger.
The MSD Manual classifies hypertension that can appear in pregnancy into two types. One is the chronicle It appears before the 20th week of pregnancy and causes complications in up to 5% of pregnancies. The second type is the gestational It appears after week 37, normally, in 10% of pregnancies, although it is more common in those who are multifetal.
How is it diagnosed?
In the different checkups that have to be done during pregnancy, the doctor will always use a blood pressure monitor to measure the blood pressure of the pregnant woman. In the event that the result is equal to or greater than 140/90 mm Hg The diagnosis will be hypertension.
After checking this, the doctor usually recommends performing a series of tests to rule out other causes that may be causing high blood pressure, for example, renal artery stenosis or Cushing's syndrome.
If the hypertension is gestational, the doctor will follow up to keep it under control. With regard to the chronic, which is more serious, you may find it necessary to prescribe antihypertensives.
If the mother has a history of hypertension in pregnancy or has had this problem in previous pregnancies, she may have a blood pressure monitor in your own home to control the tension itself and reduce the following risks.
Risks of hypertension in pregnancy
The two types of hypertension exposed increase the risk of preeclampsia, eclampsia and uteroplacental insufficiency. If they are not treated or high blood pressure control is performed, this can cause complications and even cause fetal death.
- Preeclampsia: Appears slowly and affects up to 7% of pregnant women who have a family history, are obese or have an age over 35 years. It ends up progressing to eclampsia if left untreated.
- Eclampsia: are seizures that result in a loss of consciousness and a coma. High doses of magnesium sulfate are supplied to control it. In this state, the placenta can break off prematurely, one of the most frequent causes of fetal death.
- Uteroplacental insufficiency: is the inability of the placenta to provide nutrients to the fetus. It is related to the two types of hypertension above. May cause fetal growth restriction (PEG).
There are situations in which high tension is mild and this usually does not require additional measures other than a strict control. However, in severe cases it may be necessary to admit the mother or start a hypertensive treatment. If the baby's life is in danger, the possibility of advancing the birth should be taken into account.
When to seek immediate medical attention?
It is advisable to go to the emergency services as soon as possible if the pregnant woman begins to suffer from dizziness, loses vision, has a severe headache, the face or hands swell or notice that the baby does not move. If this is added vomiting, nausea or vaginal bleeding can be indicative that the voltage is too high.
Immediate medical attention can prevent preeclampsia from eclampsia and that the baby's life is in danger. Therefore, it is important to monitor the exposed symptoms and go to the recommended medical controls during pregnancy.